Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance – A Multi-Trillion-Dollar Business

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The topic of income and wealth inequality is closely linked to the practice of tax avoidance and evasion, both by international corporations and by wealthy individuals. For example, it is often argued that an increase in top-income taxes and capital taxes intended to mitigate economic inequality will only end up scaring off investors and high-skilled workers or encouraging them to circumvent the law and ultimately hurting national prosperity. The related difficulties of implementing national policies in a globalised world have been highlighted by the recent disclosures of the Panama Papers and the European Comission’s decision to hit Apple with a tax bill of €13 billion after years of paying an effective corporate tax below one percent due to a deal with the Irish government. Unfortunately, any discussion about tax avoidance and evasion is seriously constrained by the opacity of tax havens and the global financial system and its laws and the lack of robust data. Recent research may help to shed some light on the issue at hand. But while there has been made some progress on the international level recently, it remains highly doubtful whether the gigantic globalised financial shadow economy can be tamed. Continue reading “Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance – A Multi-Trillion-Dollar Business”

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Some New Insights on Inequality

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This week, international leaders from business and politics meet for the 47th World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, to discuss pressing global issues (and improve their networks). In the face of inequality, one of the topics that is on top of this year’s agenda is to design new economic systems that ensure more equally distributed and inclusive economic growth. The organisers of the forum have recognised the disrupting role that the Fourth Industrial Revolution will play in these developments. The importance of issues of inequality has been emphasised by new findings and data that have been published in recent weeks, although situations differ substantially between countries and available data is still highly imperfect. Recent political developments might spell trouble for any collective international efforts to curb inequality. Continue reading “Some New Insights on Inequality”

You Can’t Always Get What You Want: Some Thoughts on Inequality

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This article reflects my personal opinion.

The economic article published here two weeks ago gave a short introduction to income inequality and showed that it has been on the rise again for the past decades in most developed countries. And while there is less reliable data available, the same is most likely true for wealth inequality. Inequality of opportunity has probably been stable and hence failed to work as a countermeasure. These developments have led to movements around the globe fighting for more equality and demanding a higher contribution to society from the rich and wealthy. Their voices are increasingly being heard and some of them have developed inspired, constructive propositions to reshape societies, with the recently most prominent one being the campaign of Bernie Sanders in the United States. However, at this point in history, one can assess that perfect equality is neither achievable nor desirable. While it might work in small, very homogenous communities, every time it has been tried on a larger scale it led to oppression and persecution of dissidents and the formation of a new, politically legitimised elite. So given that inequality is not inherently bad, the question arises: When does inequality become a problem that should be tackled by society? Continue reading “You Can’t Always Get What You Want: Some Thoughts on Inequality”